From the literal meaning of machine vision system, it can be seen that it is mainly divided into three parts: machine, vision and system. The machine is responsible for the movement and control of machinery; the vision is realized through light sources, industrial lenses, industrial cameras, image capture cards, etc.; the system mainly refers to software, or it can also be understood as a complete set of machine vision equipment.
As an important part of the input of machine vision system, the quality of light source directly affects that of the input data and the application effect. Since there is no general machine vision light source equipment, for each specific application example, the corresponding visual light source should be selected to achieve the best effect.
Common light sources are: LED ring light sources, low-angle light sources, backlight sources, strip light sources, coaxial light sources, cold light sources, point light sources, linear light sources and parallel light sources.
The lens is mainly responsible for beam modulation in the machine vision system and completes signal transmission.
Lens include: standard, telecentric, wide-angle, close-up and telephoto types. The selection is generally based on the camera interface, object distance, shooting range, CCD size, allowable range of distortion, magnification, focal length, and aperture.
The most essential function of an industrial camera in a machine vision system is to convert light signals into electrical signals. Compared with ordinary cameras, it has higher transmission power, anti-interference power and stable imaging capability.
According to different standards, there are many classifications: based on the output signal mode, it can be divided into analog industrial cameras and digital industrial cameras; based on different chip types, it can be divided into CCD industrial cameras and CMOS industrial cameras, which is the most common classification.
Although the image capture card is only a component of the complete machine vision system, it is also very important, and directly determines the type of the interface of the camera: black and white, colorful, analogous, digital, etc.
The more typical ones are PCI capture card, 1394 capture card, VGA capture card and GigE gigabit network capture card. Some of these capture cards have built-in multi-channel switches, which can connect multiple cameras and capture multiple channels of information at the same time.
Machine vision software is a key component of automatic processing in a machine vision system. According to specific application requirements, the software package is re-developed to automatically complete image acquisition, display, storage and processing. When purchasing machine vision software, you must pay attention to the environment of hardware development, the development operating system and the development language to ensure stable software operation and facilitate secondary development.